PITI: The 4 Components of a Mortgage Payment
CMS Mortgage Solutions Inc.
CMS Mortgage Solutions Inc.
Published on January 2, 2023

PITI: The 4 Components of a Mortgage Payment

A mortgage payment can be confusing, especially when you’re not familiar with all of the terminology. Here’s a breakdown of the four components of a mortgage payment (PITI): Principal, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance. We’ll explain what each one of these means and how they work together to make up your mortgage payment each month.

The four components of a mortgage payment are Principal, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance (PITI).


Principle refers to the amount borrowed from the lender or mortgage provider. This is usually broken down into different payments each month. Principal payments are largely responsible for reducing debt over time, as they make up the majority of mortgage payments and are applied directly to the loan balance.


Interest is the cost of borrowing money that you pay in addition to your mortgage principal. How much interest you pay depends on a variety of factors, such as the type of mortgage product chosen, your credit score and any other factors that go into determining the mortgage rate. When all these factors are taken into consideration, your mortgage lender will provide you with an interest rate that will be applied to the total amount borrowed.

Your mortgage interest payments are typically calculated based on a percentage of the remaining mortgage balance. As such, each payment you make towards the mortgage principal will reduce your overall mortgage balance and consequently lower your interest payments over time. This can help to save you money in the long run by allowing you to reduce the total amount of interest paid over the life of the loan.


Taxes refer to any applicable local or government taxes that must be collected monthly with mortgage payments. This can include property taxes, transfer taxes, mortgage recording taxes, and more. Taxes are an important part of mortgage payments because they help to reduce the total amount borrowed from lenders. When mortgage payments are made each month, taxes are automatically deducted along with principal, interest, and insurance (PITI). These taxes typically refer to property taxes or mortgage-related tax fees that must be collected.

Property tax is a percentage of the assessed value of your home and can vary depending on where you live. It's normally spread out over 12 payments and due annually or semi-annually. On the other hand, mortgage recording taxes are fees paid to a state or local government as part of mortgage closing costs. These fees depend on location and range from 0.5% to 1% of total loan amount.

In addition, transfer taxes may also be required in some states and these fees relate to conveying ownership of real estate when purchased or sold and are generally based on the sale price of the home. Lastly, mortgage stamp tax is an additional fee imposed by some states for registering mortgage documents with the local recorder’s office.


Insurance typically refers to homeowners insurance - a policy that protects you against potential losses due to fires, storms, or other types of damage to your home. In some cases mortgage lenders may require additional coverage for flood insurance if you live in an area prone to flooding.

Insurance is an important component of mortgage payments and helps to cover potential losses that may arise from an incident such as a fire, theft or natural disaster. It also serves as protection for mortgage lenders in the event that their borrower defaults on the loan. This type of coverage is usually required by mortgage lenders and is known as mortgage insurance.

Mortgage insurance costs vary depending on the mortgage product chosen and typically ranges between 0.5% to 1% of the total loan amount. This cost is usually paid upfront at closing although it can sometimes be rolled into the mortgage balance if desired. Additionally, mortgage insurance premiums are typically spread out over 12 monthly payments and will be included with your overall PITI payment each month.

Having this type of coverage ensures that mortgage lenders have some form of recourse in cases where borrowers default on their loan payments or experience financial hardship due to unforeseen circumstances. Without mortgage insurance, lenders would be unable to recoup any losses incurred from unpaid mortgage loans which could significantly impact their business operations and profitability going forward.

In addition, mortgage insurance also provides peace of mind for homeowners who may find themselves facing unexpected hardships down the road. By having this type of coverage in place, it allows homeowners to breathe a little easier knowing that should something happen, they won't be left without a roof over their heads or a pile of debt to repay. Ultimately, mortgage insurance helps to provide security against potential losses while also providing peace of mind for both homeowners and mortgage lenders alike.

All these amounts need to be accounted for when making mortgage payments each month so that you can stay on top of loan repayment and avoid any lapses in coverage that could cause financial problems down the road.
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CMS Mortgage Solutions Inc.
CMS Mortgage Solutions Inc. Virginia Beach
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(757) 558-2603